We look at the arrival of Celtic speaking people in Europe, and the invasion of Celtic Gaul by the Romans. Celtic is replaced by Latin in Western Europe, leading to the modern Romance languages. Celtic words in modern English are examined.
We look at the rise of the Roman Republic from a small Italian city-state to the dominant political and military power of the Mediterranean. The expansion of Rome also led to the expansion of Latin which emerged as a common lingua franca. We also explore Latin words and phrases from this period which have found their way into Modern English.
The first Indo-Europeans settle into Italy, but they encounter an existing civilization known as the Etruscans. The Etruscans borrow the alphabet from the Greeks, and soon pass it on to the Romans. Our modern alphabet finally begins to emerge.
The Classical Greek period is explored with an emphasis on Modern English words which originated during this period of Greek history.
Mycenaean Greek writing disappears during the Greek Dark Age, but the Greeks encounter the Phoenicians and adopt their alphabet. The Greek alphabet results in the spread of literacy. Modern English words from this period of Greek history are examined.
The first Greek and Hittite civilizations emerge from Indo-European tribes in the eastern Mediterranean. The Greeks adopt an early form of writing and fight the Trojans. An alphabet allows the ancient history of the Greeks to be recorded in the Iliad and the Odyssey. (Note: This episode was posted on October 31, 2020 and is an extended version of the episode originally posted in August, 2013. This episode includes approximately 25 minutes of material not included in the original episode.)
Kevin Stroud updates listeners regarding the podcast and the website for the podcast. Kevin also answers some questions posed by listeners.
We look at the emergence of the Usatovo culture which spoke an Indo-European dialect believed to be the ancient ancestor of the Germanic languages – including English. We also look at the later migrations of the Indo-European tribes throughout Europe and Central Asia.
The emergence of the first Indo-Europeans and the early migrations of these steppe herders is examined. The specific advantages favoring the expansion of these people is explored in detail.
The evidence is examined to determine when and where the original Indo-Europeans lived. Based upon this evidence, the probable identity of the first Indo-Europeans is revealed.