In this episode, we explore the state of the English language outside of England in the early 1300s. This story takes us to the regions where Celtic languages were traditionally spoken. In some of those regions, English had little or no influence. But in parts of Scotland, English had been a native language since the Anglo-Saxon period. During this period, the Scots were engaged in a battle for independence from England, and that struggle was captured in the first piece of literature in the emerging Scots dialect of English.